The editorial board of UJoST- Universal Journal of Science and Technology recognize that plagiarism is not acceptable and therefore establishes the following policy stating specific actions (penalties) when plagiarism is identified in an article that is submitted for publication in UJoST. UJoST uses Plagiarism CheckerX as a plagiarism detection tool to ensure the integrity of submitted papers.
What is Plagiarism?
The Oxford English Dictionary defines plagiarism as "to take and use as one's own the thoughts, writings or inventions of another."
One of the most common types of publication misconduct is plagiarism - when one author deliberately uses another’s work without permission, credit, or acknowledgment. Plagiarism takes different forms, from literal copying to paraphrasing some else’s work and can include:
- Words and Phrases
- Ideas and Concepts
Plagiarism has different varying levels of severity, such as:
- How much of someone’s work was taken – a few lines, paragraphs, pages, the full article?
- What was copied – results, methods, or introduction section?
When it comes to working, always remember that crediting the work of others (including your advisor’s or your previous work) is a critical part of the process. Should always place work in the context of the advancement of the field, and acknowledge the findings of others on which have built research.
When has an author plagiarized?
Literal copying is reproducing a work word for word, in whole or in part, without permission and acknowledgment of the source. Literal copying is blatant plagiarism and is easy to detect by comparing the papers in question.
Substantial copying is reproducing a substantial part of a work, without permission and acknowledgment of the source. It can include research materials, processes, tables, or equipment. In determining what is “substantial,” both the quantity and the quality of the copied content are relevant. Quality refers to the relative value of the copied text in proportion to the work as a whole. Where the essence of a work has been reproduced, even if only a small part of the original work, plagiarism may have occurred.
Copying may take place without reproducing the exact words used in the original work, i.e. without literal or substantial copying. This type of copying is known as paraphrasing, and it can be the most challenging type of plagiarism to detect.
Reproducing portions of an author’s work in a paper, and submitting it for publication as an entirely new paper.
Action to be Taken
The paper should be original, unpublished, and not pending publication elsewhere. Any material taken verbatim from another source needs to be identified as different from the present original text by (1) indentation, (2) use of quotation marks, and (3) identification of the source.
Any text of an amount exceeding fair use standards (herein defined as more than two or three sentences or the equivalent thereof) or any graphic material reproduced from another source requires permission from the copyright holder and, if feasible, the original author(s) and also requires identification of the source; e.g., previous publication.
When plagiarism is identified, the Editor in Chief responsible for the review of this paper and will agree on measures according to the extent of plagiarism detected in the paper in agreement with the following guidelines:
A short section of another article is plagiarized without any significant data or idea taken from the other paper. Then the editor gives a warning to the authors, and a request to change the text and properly cite the original article is made.
A significant portion of a paper is plagiarized without proper citation to the original paper. Then, the submitted article is rejected and the authors are forbidden to submit further articles for one year.
A significant portion of a paper is plagiarized that involves reproducing original results or ideas presented in another publication. Then, the paper is rejected and the authors are forbidden to submit further articles for five years.
If the second case of plagiarism by the same author(s) is identified, a decision on the measures to be enforced will be made by the editorial board. The author(s) might be forbidden to submit further articles forever.
This policy also applies to material reproduced from another publication by the same author(s). If an author uses text or figures that have previously been published, the corresponding paragraphs or figures should be identified and the previous publication referenced. It is understood that in the case of a review paper or a paper of a tutorial nature much of the material was previously published.
The author should identify the source of the previously published material and obtain permission from the original author and the publisher. If an author submits a manuscript to Sundermann Journal with significant overlap with a manuscript submitted to another journal simultaneously, and this overlap is discovered during the review process or after the publications of both papers, the editor of the other journal is notified, and the case is treated as a severe plagiarism case. Significant overlap means the use of identical or almost identical figures and identical or slightly modified text for one-half or more of the paper. For self-plagiarism of less than one-half of the paper but more than one-tenth of the paper, the case shall be treated as intermediate plagiarism. If self-plagiarism is confined to the methods section, the case shall be considered as minor plagiarism.
If an author uses some of his previously published material to clarify the presentation of new results, the previously published material shall be identified and the difference to the present publication shall be mentioned. Permission to republish must be obtained from the copyright holder. In the case of a manuscript that was originally published in conference proceedings and then is submitted for publication in Sundermann Journal either in identical or in expanded form, the authors must identify the name of the conference proceedings and the date of the publication and obtain permission to republish from the copyright holder. The editor may decide not to accept this paper for publication.
However, an author shall be permitted to use material from an unpublished presentation, including visual displays, in a subsequent journal publication. In the case of a publication being submitted, that was originally published in another language, the title, date, and journal of the original publication must be identified by the authors, and the copyright must be obtained. The editor may accept such a translated publication to bring it to the attention of a wider audience. The editor may select a specific paper that had been published for republication in order to provide a better perspective of a series of papers published in one issue of Pastoralia Journal. This republication shall be clearly identified as such and the date and journal of the original publication shall be given, and the permission of the author(s) and the publisher shall be obtained.
The UJoST is responsible for maintaining the list of authors subjected to penalties and will check that no authors of a submitted paper are on this list. If a banned author is identified, the editor will take appropriate measures. This policy will be posted on the website with the instructions for submitting a manuscript, and a copy will be sent to the authors with the confirmation email upon initial receipt of their original manuscript. A sentence shall be added to the copyright transfer form to indicate that the author(s) have read the Plagiarism Policy.
The papers published in UJoST will be considered for a retraction if:
- They have clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g., data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error)
- the findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (i.e. cases of redundant publication)
- it constitutes plagiarism
- it reports unethical research
- The mechanism of retraction follows the Retraction Guidelines of Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) which can be accessed at https://publicationethics.org/files/retraction%20guidelines.pdf.